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Authors: Calvari, S.* 
Spampinato, L.* 
Lodato, L.* 
Harris, A. J. L.* 
Patrick, M. R.* 
Dehn, J.* 
Burton, M. R.* 
Andronico, D.* 
Title: Chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002–2003 flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera
Issue Date: 2-Feb-2005
Series/Report no.: B02201/110(2005)
DOI: 10.1029/2004JB003129
Keywords: volcano monitoring
thermal mapping
flank eruption
Stromboli volcano
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.02. Experimental volcanism 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: Effusive activity at Stromboli is uncommon, and the 2002–2003 flank eruption gave us the opportunity to observe and analyze a number of complex volcanic processes. In particular, the use of a handheld thermal camera during the eruption allowed us to monitor the volcano even in difficult weather and operating conditions. Regular helicopter-borne surveys with the thermal camera throughout the eruption have significantly improved (1) mapping of active lava flows; (2) detection of new cracks, landslide scars, and obstructions forming within and on the flanks of active craters; (3) observation of active lava flow field features, such as location of new vents, tube systems, tumuli, and hornitos; (4) identification of active vent migration along the Sciara del Fuoco; (5) monitoring of crater's inner morphology and maximum temperature, revealing magma level changes within the feeding conduit; and (6) detection of lava flow field endogenous growth. Additionally, a new system developed by A. J. L. Harris and others has been applied to our thermal data, allowing daily calculation of effusion rate. These observations give us new insights on the mechanisms controlling the volcanic system.
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