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Authors: Intxauspe-Zubiaurre, Beñat* 
Martínez-Braceras, Naroa* 
Payros, Aitor* 
Ortiz, Silvia* 
Dinarès Turell, Jaume* 
Flores, José-Abel* 
Title: The last Eocene hyperthermal (Chron C19r event, ~41.5 Ma): Chronological and paleoenvironmental insights from a continental margin (Cape Oyambre, N Spain)
Journal: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 
Series/Report no.: /505 (2018)
Issue Date: 2018
DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.05.044
Abstract: The last hyperthermal event in the Eocene, the Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum or Chron C19r event, took place at ~41.5 Ma, during a long-term global cooling phase which occurred between the warm Early Eocene Climatic Optimum and the icehouse Oligocene Epoch. This paleoclimatic event was first identified in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1260 as an abrupt peak in bulk Fe content and a short-lived decline in stable isotopes (δ13C, δ18O) and carbonate content. Additional studies have recently been carried from the Southern Atlantic ODP sites 702 and 1263. However, many issues were not addressed at these deep-sea sites and no land-based record of the event had been studied. Therefore, the beach cliff at Cape Oyambre (N Spain) was analyzed with the aim of identifying the C19r event and investigating its paleoenvironmental impact. Using magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic information, the astronomically tuned cyclo-stratigraphic record from Oyambre was accurately correlated with ODP Site 1260. This, combined with stable isotope data, allowed identification of the event in a conspicuous dark marl bed. Given that the associated negative carbon isotope excursion extends for 2/3 of a precession-driven hemicouplet, a 7–11 kyr duration was estimated, which agrees with recent estimates from the Atlantic deep-sea sites. Exceptional insolation conditions were found to have accelerated the hydrological cycle, increasing rainfall and runoff on land and terrestrial sediment input to the sea, which resulted in relatively low carbonate content in the deep-sea sediments. The terrestrial input also caused seawater eutrophication and freshening, leading to low δ13C and δ18O values, increased abundance of autochthonous and reworked calcareous nannofossil taxa, peaks in the abundance of opportunistic Reticulofenestra<5μm and opportunistic benthic foraminifera, and a reduction in the abundance of the oligotrophic calcareous nannofossil Zygrhablithus bijugatus. However, neither intensified carbon-gas driven greenhouse effect nor warming over and above natural fluctuations could be demonstrated from the Oyambre data.
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