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Authors: Bignami, C.* 
Ruch, J.* 
Chini, M.* 
Neri, M.* 
Buongiorno, M. F.* 
Hidayati, S.* 
Sayudi, D. S.* 
Surono, N.* 
Title: Pyroclastic density current volume estimation after the 2010 Merapi volcano eruption using X-band SAR
Issue Date: 2013
Series/Report no.: /261 (2013)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.03.023
Keywords: SAR interferometry
DSM change
Pyroclastic density current
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: Pyroclastic density current deposits remobilized by water during periods of heavy rainfall trigger lahars (volcanic mudflows) that affect inhabited areas at considerable distance from volcanoes, even years after an eruption.Here we present an innovative approach to detect and estimate the thickness and volume of pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits as well as erosional versus depositional environments. We use SAR interferometry to compare an airborne digital surface model (DSM) acquired in 2004 to a post eruption 2010 DSM created using COSMO-SkyMed satellite data to estimate the volume of 2010 Merapi eruption PDC deposits along the Gendol river (Kali Gendol, KG). Results show PDC thicknesses of up to 75 m in canyons and a volume of about 40 × 10^6 m3, mainly along KG, and at distances of up to 16 km from the volcano summit. This volume estimate corresponds mainly to the 2010 pyroclastic deposits along the KG — material that is potentially available to produce lahars. Our volume estimate is approximately twice that estimated by field studies, a difference we consider acceptable given the uncertainties involved in both satellite- and field-based methods. Our technique can be used to rapidly evaluate volumes of PDC deposits at active volcanoes, in remote settings and where continuous activity may prevent field observations.
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