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Authors: Cultrera, G.* 
De Rubeis, V.* 
Theodoulidis, N.* 
Cadet, H.* 
Bard, P.* 
Title: Statistical correlation of earthquake and ambient noise spectral ratios
Issue Date: 2014
Series/Report no.: 4/12 (2014)
DOI: 10.1007/s10518-013-9576-7
Keywords: Earthquake ground motions
Ambient noise
Site effects
Statistical seismology
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.09. Waves and wave analysis 
Abstract: The Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio from earthquake (HVSR) and from ambient noise (HVN) recordings realistically indicate the fundamental frequency of soil response but, for the majority of the worldwide examined sites, they do not provide reliable amplification curves as calculated by the earthquake standard Spectral Ratio (SSR). Given the fact that HVSR and especially HVN can be easily obtained, it is challenging to search for a meaningful correlation with SSR amplification functions for the entire frequency band and to use the results for the SSR estimate at a further site where only noise measurements are available. To this aim we used recordings from 75 sites worldwide and we applied a multivariate statistical approach (canonical correlation analysis) to investigate and quantify any correlation among spectral ratios. The canonical correlation between SSR and HVN is then used to estimate the expected SSR at each site by a weighted average of the SSR values measured at the other sites; the weights are properly set to account more for sites with similar behaviour in terms of the canonical correlation results between HVN and SSR. This procedure, repeated for all sites in turn, constitutes the basis of a cross validation. The comparison between the inferred and the original SSR highlights the improvements of site response estimation with respect to the use of ambient noise techniques. The goodness and limitations of the reconstruction procedure are explained by specific geological settings.
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