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Authors: Pesci, A.* 
Teza, G.* 
Bonali, E.* 
Title: Terrestrial Laser Scanner Resolution: Numerical Simulations and Experiments on Spatial Sampling Optimization
Issue Date: 14-Jan-2011
Series/Report no.: /3 (2011)
DOI: 10.3390/rs3010167
Keywords: instruments; LiDAR; terrestrial laser scanning; resolution; spatial sampling
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: An empirical approach is proposed in order to evaluate the largest spot spacing allowing the appropriate resolution to recognize the required surface details in a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) survey. The suitable combination of laser beam divergence and spot spacing for the effective scanning angular resolution has been studied by numerical simulation experiments with an artificial target taken from distances between 25 m and 100 m, and observations of real surfaces. The tests have been performed by using the Optech ILRIS-3D instrument. Results show that the discrimination of elements smaller than a third of the beam divergence (D) is not possible and that the ratio between the used spot-spacing (ss) and the element size (TS) is linearly related to the acquisition range. The zero and first order parameters of this linear trend are computed and used to solve for the maximum efficient ss at defined ranges for a defined TS. Despite the fact that the parameters are obtained for the Optech ILRIS-3D scanner case, and depend on its specific technical data and performances, the proposed method has general validity and it can be used to estimate the corresponding parameters for other instruments. The obtained results allow the optimization of a TLS survey in terms of acquisition time and surface details recognition.
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