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Authors: Faggioni, O.* 
Soldani, M.* 
Leoncini, D.* 
Zunino, R.* 
Gastaldo, P.* 
Di Gennaro, E.* 
Lamberti, L. O.* 
Maggiani, P. V.* 
Title: Harbour Sea-floor Clearance: “HD” High Definition Magnetic Survey Performance
Issue Date: 21-Oct-2009
Keywords: Seafloor clearance
magnetic survey
magnetic detection
proton Overhauser magnetometer
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.04. Magnetic and electrical methods 
04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.07. Instruments and techniques 
04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.04. Magnetic anomalies 
04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.08. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.01. Data processing 
Abstract: Seafloor clearance methods based on acoustic, direct-inspection, and single-sensor magnetic approaches suffer from limitations in controlling the target-sensor distance, and may prove ineffective when the small size or the dangerous nature of targets requires high accuracy in localization. Moreover, random magnetic variations over time bring about spatial decorrelation phenomena, and hinder the application of double-sensor methods in noisy harbour environments. The new High Definition (HD) magnetic survey protocol tackles the measurement-distance problem in two ways: first, by varying the sensor depth dynamically, and secondly by backprojecting the measured field according to seafloor data and vertical incremental factors associated with the bandwidth characteristics of targets. The method to make up for timeinduced loss in spatial localization ability exploits the local behaviour of a coherence function, which correlates local observations to a set of spatially-stabilized reference stations. The consequent normalization of measured magnetic signals allows one to assign the monitored areas with a specific level of confidence in the detection results, ranging from 100% (certainty) to 0% (random events). The principles of HD detection have been fully applied in the seafloor clearance of the firing test site located south of Cape Teulada (Sardinia, Italy), where very weak signal sources such as cartridge cases, mines, and small objects down to 1 Kg mass values (lobster pots) have been successfully localized, even when covered by extensive colonies of Posidonia.
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