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Authors: Mc’Gonigle, A. J. S.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Hayes, A. R.* 
Galle, B.* 
Edmonds, M.* 
Caltabiano, T.* 
Salerno, G.* 
Burton, M.* 
Title: Volcanic sulphur dioxide fluxes from Etna, Vulcano and Stromboli measured with an automated scanning ultraviolet spectrometer
Issue Date: 2003
Series/Report no.: 10
DOI: 10.1029/2002JB002261
Keywords: volcanic gas monitoring, remote sensing, SO2 emissions, DOAS,ultraviolet spectroscopy
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
Abstract: Stromboli made in July 2002 from fixed positions, using an automated plume scanning technique. Spectral data were collected using a miniature ultraviolet spectrometer, and SO2 column amounts were derived with a differential optical absorption spectroscopy evaluation routine. Scanning through the plume was enabled by a 45 turning mirror affixed to the shaft of a computer controlled stepper motor, so that scattered skylight from incremental angles within the horizon-to-horizon scans was reflected into the field of view of the spectrometer. Each scan lasted _5 min and, by combining these data with wind speeds, average fluxes of 940, 14, and 280 Mg d_1 were obtained for Etna, Vulcano, and Stromboli, respectively. For comparative purposes, conventional road and airborne traverses were also made using this spectrometer, yielding fluxes of 850, 17, and 210 Mg d_1. The automated scanning technique has the advantage of obviating the need for time-consuming traverses underneath the plume and is well suited for longer-term telemetered deployments to provide sustained high time resolution flux data.
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