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Authors: Crisci, G. M.* 
Di Gregorio, S.* 
Rongo, R.* 
Scarpelli, M.* 
Spataro, W.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Title: Revisiting the 1669 Etnean eruptive crisis using a cellular automata model and implications for volcanic hazard in the Catania area
Issue Date: 2003
Series/Report no.: 1-2/123 (2003)
DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00037-4
Keywords: lava
Mount Etna
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: Cellular Automata provide an alternative approach to standard numerical methods for modelling some complex natural systems, the behaviour of which can be described in terms of local interactions of their constituent parts. SCIARA is a 2-D Cellular Automata model which simulates lava flows. It was tested on, validated by, and improved on several Etnean lava events such as the 1986^1987 eruption and the first and last phase of the 1991^1993 event. With respect to forecasting the surface covered by the lava flows, the best results were acceptable. The model has been used to determine hazard zones in the inhabited areas of Nicolosi, Pedara, S. Alfio and Zafferana (Sicily, Italy). The main goal of the current work in the Etnean area from Nicolosi to Catania has been the verification of the volcanic hazard effects of an eruptive crisis similar to the event that occurred in 1669. The simulation uses the volcanic data of the 1669 eruption with present-day morphology. Catania has been affected by some historical Etnean events, the most famous one being the 1669 eruption, involving 1 km3 of lava erupted over the course of 120 days. The simulation of ephemeral vents and the use of different histories within the experiments have been crucial in the determination of a new hazard area for Catania. In fact, during the simulation the city was never affected without the introduction of ephemeral vents, proving the fact that lava tubes played a fundamental role in the 1669 Catania lava crisis.
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