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|Authors: ||Pietrella, M.*|
|Title: ||A short-term ionospheric forecasting empirical regional model (IFERM) to predict the critical frequency of the F2 layer during moderate, disturbed, and very disturbed geomagnetic conditions over the European area|
|Title of journal: ||Annales Geophysicae|
|Series/Report no.: ||2/30 (2012)|
|Publisher: ||Copernicus Publications|
|Issue Date: ||8-Feb-2012|
|Keywords: ||Ionosphere (Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; Ionospheric disturbances; Modeling and forecasting)|
|Abstract: ||A short-term ionospheric forecasting empirical regional model (IFERM) has been developed to predict the state of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) under different geomagnetic conditions.
IFERM is based on 13 short term ionospheric forecasting empirical local models (IFELM) developed to predict foF2 at 13 ionospheric observatories scattered around the European
area. The forecasting procedures were developed by taking into account, hourly measurements of foF2, hourly quiettime
reference values of foF2 (foF2QT), and the hourly timeweighted accumulation series derived from the geomagnetic
planetary index ap, (ap(τ )), for each observatory.
Under the assumption that the ionospheric disturbance index ln(foF2/foF2QT) is correlated to the integrated geomagnetic
disturbance index ap(τ ), a set of statistically significant regression coefficients were established for each observatory, over 12 months, over 24 h, and under 3 different ranges of geomagnetic activity. This data was then used as input to
compute short-term ionospheric forecasting of foF2 at the 13 local stations under consideration.
The empirical storm-time ionospheric correction model (STORM) was used to predict foF2 in two different ways:
scaling both the hourly median prediction provided by IRI (STORM foF2MED,IRI model), and the foF2QT values (STORM foF2QT model) from each local station.
The comparison between the performance of
STORM foF2MED,IRI, STORM foF2QT, IFELM, and
the foF2QT values, was made on the basis of root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) for a large number of periods characterized by moderate, disturbed, and very disturbed
The results showed that the 13 IFELM perform much better than STORM foF2MED,IRI and STORM foF2QT especially in the eastern part of the European area during the summer months (May, June, July, and August) and equinoctial
months (March, April, September, and October) under disturbed and very disturbed geomagnetic conditions, respectively.
The performance of IFELM is also very good
in the western and central part of the Europe during the summer months under disturbed geomagnetic conditions.
STORM foF2MED,IRI performs particularly well in central Europe during the equinoctial months under moderate geomagnetic
conditions and during the summer months under
very disturbed geomagnetic conditions.
The forecasting maps generated by IFERM on the basis of the results provided by the 13 IFELM, show very large areas located at middle-high and high latitudes where the foF2 predictions quite faithfully match the foF2 measurements, and consequently IFERM can be used for generating short-term
forecasting maps of foF2 (up to 3 h ahead) over the European area.|
|Appears in Collections:||01.02.99. General or miscellaneous|
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