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Authors: Settimi, A.* 
Zirizzotti, A.* 
Baskaradas, J. A.* 
Bianchi, C.* 
Title: Optimal Requirements of a Data Acquisition System for a Quadrupolar PROBE employed in Electrical Spectroscopy
Issue Date: 8-Aug-2009
Series/Report no.: arXiv:0908.0648v2 (2009)
Keywords: Explorative geophysics
Methods of non-destructive testing
Data acquisition
Complex impedance measurements: error theory
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: This paper discusses the development and engineering of electrical spectroscopy for simultaneous and non invasive measurement of electrical resistivity and dielectric permittivity. A quadrupolar probe is able to perform measurements on a subsurface with inaccuracies below a fixed limit in a band of low frequencies. The probe should be connected to an appropriate analogical digital converter (ADC) which samples in uniform or in phase and quadrature (IQ) mode. If the probe is characterized by a galvanic contact with the surface, the inaccuracies in the measurement of resistivity and permittivity, due to the uniform or IQ sampling ADC, are analytically expressed. A large number of numerical simulations prove that the performance of the probe depends on the selected sampler and that the IQ is better compared to the uniform mode under the same operating conditions, i.e. bit resolution and medium.
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