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Authors: Salerno, G.* 
Burton, M.* 
Oppenheimer, C.* 
Caltabiano, T.* 
Randazzo, D.* 
Bruno, N.* 
Longo, V.* 
Title: Three-years of SO2 flux measurements of Mt. Etna using an automated UV scanner array: comparison with conventional traverses and uncertainties in flux retrieval
Issue Date: 2008
Keywords: SO2 flux, scanning spectrometer, DOAS, car-based traverse, volcano surveillance, Mt. Etna
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Routine measurements of SO2 flux using the traverse method on Mt. Etna (Italy) were augmented in late 2004 when an array of automatic scanning ultraviolet spectrometers was installed. Each instrument allows one SO2 scan to be recorded every ~6 min. Here we report the methods that we developed to automatically and robustly transform SO2 profiles into SO2 flux data. Radian geometry and Fast Fourier Transform algorithm were used for reducing plume cross sections and for discriminating between volcanic plumes from those produced by water vapour clouds. Uncertainty in flux measurements depends on the accuracy of plume-height estimation, on assumptions concerning plume-geometry, and on the quality of the retrieved SO2 amounts. We compare 3 years of flux measurements made using both the automated network and “conventional” traverse methods beneath the plume. We found a good agreement between the datasets, both in terms of magnitude and in temporal variations. These results validate the Etna SO2 flux monitoring system. Emission rates are available to the 24-hour manned operations room via intranet, providing real-time information on degassing rates and plume location.
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