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Authors: De Vita, S.* 
Sansivero, F.* 
Orsi, G.* 
Marotta, E.* 
Title: Cyclical slope instability and volcanism related to volcano-tectonism in resurgent calderas: The Ischia island (Italy) case study
Issue Date: 2006
Series/Report no.: /86 (2006)
DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.02.013
Keywords: Slope instability
Resurgent calderas
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.03. Geomorphology 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.10. Stratigraphy 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: The results of a detailed stratigraphic study, carried out in the areas located to the east and south-west of Mt. Epomeo at Ischia, are presented and compared with those of previous geological, archaeological and historical investigations to show the relationships among caldera resurgence, volcanism and slope instability in the past 5.5 ka. Resurgence at Ischia began at about 30 ka B.P. and occurred through intermittent uplifting and tectonic quietness phases. During the past 5.5 ka reactivation of faults and related volcanic activity was accompanied by emplacement of deposits generated by surface gravitational movements. These deposits were generated in four main phases, dated between 5.5 and 2.9 ka, around 2.9 ka, between 2.6 and 2.3 ka, and between 2.3 and 1.9 ka, respectively. Deposits formed by gravitational movements preceded and followed the emplacement of volcanic rocks, testifying that slope instability was induced by vertical movements, which also activated and/or reactivated faults and fractures that fed volcanism. The results of this study therefore suggest that, although slope failure can occur as a consequence of a variety of factors, resurgence has to be considered a factor inducing a particularly intense slope instability. Resurgence is accompanied by activation of faults and renewal of volcanism, causing oversteepening of the slopes and generating seismicity that could trigger surface gravitational movements. Furthermore, the availability of large amount of loose material, rapidly accumulated along the slopes during eruptions, favors landslide generation.
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