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Authors: Casalbore, Daniele* 
Romagnoli, Claudia* 
Bosman, Alessandro* 
De Astis, Gianfilippo* 
Lucchi, Federico* 
Tranne, Claudio Antonio* 
Chiocci, Francesco Latino* 
Title: Multi-stage formation of La Fossa Caldera (Vulcano Island, Italy) from an integrated subaerial and submarine analysis
Journal: Marine Geophysical Researches 
Series/Report no.: /40 (2019)
Issue Date: 2019
DOI: 10.1007/s11001-018-9358-3
Subject Classification04.04. Geology 
04.08. Volcanology 
04.02. Exploration geophysics 
Abstract: The analysis of multibeam bathymetry, seismic profiles, ROV dive and seafloor sampling, integrated with stratigraphic and geological data derived from subaerial field studies, provides information on the multi-stage formation and evolution of La Fossa Caldera at the active volcanic system of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands). The caldera is mostly subaerial and delimited by well-defined rims associated to three different collapse events occurred at about 80, 48–24, and 13–8 ka, respectively. The NE part of the caldera presently lies below the sea-level and is delimited by two partially degraded rim segments, encompassing a depressed and eroded area of approximately 2 km2. We present here further morphological and petrochemical evidence linking the subaerial caldera rims to its submarine counterparts. Particularly, one of the submarine rims can be directly correlated with the subaerial eastern caldera border related to the intermediate (48–24 ka) collapse event. The other submarine rim cannot be directly linked to any subaerial caldera rim, because of the emplacement of the Vulcanello lava platform during the last 2 millennia that interrupts the caldera border. However, morphological interpretation and the trachyte composition of dredged lavas allow us to associate this submarine rim with the younger (13–8 ka) caldera collapse event that truncated the trachyte-rhyolite Monte Lentia dome complex in the NW sector of Vulcano. The diachronicity of the different collapse events forming the La Fossa Caldera can also explain the morpho-structural mismatch of some hundreds of meters between the two submarine caldera rims. A small part of this offset could be also accounted by tectonic displacement along NE–SW trending lineaments breaching and dismantling the submarine portion of the caldera. A network of active erosive gullies, whose headwall arrive up to the coast, is in fact responsible of the marked marine retrogressive erosion affecting the NE part of the caldera, where remnants of intra-caldera volcanic activity are still evident. Submarine morphological features associated to the entrance of subaerial lava flow units into the sea are presented, particularly related to the construction of the La Fossa Cone and Vulcanello. More generally, this study demonstrates the utility of integrated marine and subaerial studies to unravel the volcano-tectonic evolution of active insular volcanoes.
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