Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/11987
Authors: Mikhailov, A. V.* 
Perrone, Loredana* 
Title: Interminimum foF1 Differences and Their Physical Interpretation
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2018
Series/Report no.: 1/123(2018)
DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024831
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/11987
Keywords: Long term trend in the ionosphere
Thermosphere
Subject Classification01.02. Ionosphere 
Abstract: Interminimum changes of June noontime monthly median foF1 were analyzed for European and Japanese ionosonde stations over the period of five (Moscow six) solar cycles. The magnitude of these changes is different at different stations and depends on the solar minima considered. In particular, both European and Japanese stations manifest a pronounced foF1 change between 1996/1997 and 2008/2009 solar minima, the latter being the deepest one. For the first time, the total EUV solar flux with λ ≤ 1,050 Å has been retrieved for the 1946–2015 period using observed June monthly median foF1. The deep solar minimum in 2008/2009 was the lowest one among the last six solar cycles comparing the retrieved EUV. The change from 1996/1997 to 2008/2009 in the retrieved EUV is ~2.0%, and this is much less than the difference of ~10–12% being discussed in the literature. A 10% interminimum change in the total EUV flux results in neutral temperature and gas density, which are larger in 2008 than in 1996, and this contradicts the satellite drag neutral gas density observations. The mechanism of foF1 interminimum changes is based on an interplay between molecular (NO+ and O2 +) and O+ ions. The main contribution (>72%) to the interminimum NmF1 change provides [M+] ions via the total ion production rate variation, the rest is provided via O+ ions. The absence (or inversed) difference in foF1 between 1996 and 2008 minima implies that neutral temperature and density are larger in 2008 than in 1996, and this contradicts the satellite drag observations.
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