Earth-printshttps://www.earth-prints.orgThe DSpace digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.Sun, 08 Sep 2024 15:10:19 GMT2024-09-08T15:10:19Z5021Effects of conduit geometry on magma ascent dynamics in dome-forming eruptionshttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/4535Title: Effects of conduit geometry on magma ascent dynamics in dome-forming eruptions
Authors: De’ Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.
Abstract: We develop a steady-state, two-phase flow model of magma ascent through an axisymmetric conduit of variable radius R and length L in order to quantify relationships between conduit geometry and magma ascent dynamics. Holding boundary conditions and chamber magma properties constant, we vary conduit geometry systematically and independently, such that the upper conduit radius increases or decreases by a factor of Rt /Rb (radius ratio; 0.4 ≤ Rt /Rb ≤ 2.5), above a change initiation height H (0.1 ≤ H /L ≤ 0.7), and over length Le (Le /L = 0.2), where Rt and Rb are conduit radius above (t) and below (b) the radius change and H is the height above the top of the magma chamber. Conduit widening causes a drop in overpressure and corresponding increase in gas volume fraction and magma acceleration over the whole length of the conduit, with all changes increasing in magnitude with increasing radius ratio. Magma ascent rate increases roughly as R2 and volumetric flow rate subsequently increases as R4 when Rt = Rb = R. Both increasing Rt for a fixed Rb (increasing radius ratio) and increasing Rb for a fixed Rt (decreasing radius ratio), increase volume flow and magma ascent rates. Compared to changes in geometry, small changes in chamber pressure (< 5%) have a weak effect on flow rate. Many model runs produce a magma plug at the top of the conduit, largely due to permeable gas loss through conduit walls. In general, large radii and low radius ratios (i.e., nearly cylindrical conduits) favor thin, low-density plugs, which may facilitate sudden destruction of a plug, and thus enhance the likelihood of explosive over extrusive eruptions. These findings suggest that changes in conduit geometry, such as those caused by conduit erosion during explosive eruptions or by accretion of magma along conduit walls, are strongly coupled to magma ascent dynamics and should not be ignored when interpreting changes in eruptive behavior.
Fri, 15 Aug 2008 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/45352008-08-15T00:00:00ZTransient effects of magma ascent dynamics along a geometrically variable dome-feeding conduithttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/6510Title: Transient effects of magma ascent dynamics along a geometrically variable dome-feeding conduit
Authors: De’ Michieli Vitturi, M.; Clarke, A. B.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.
Abstract: The transient dynamics of magma ascent during dome-forming eruptions were investigated and the effects of magma chamber pressure perturbations on eruption rate are illustrated. The numerical model DOMEFLOW, developed by the authors for this work, is applied to the problem. DOMEFLOW is a transient 1.5D isothermal two-phase flow model of magma ascent through an axisymmetric conduit of variable radius, which accounts for gas exsolution, bubble growth, crystallization induced by degassing, permeable gas loss through overlying magma and through conduit walls, as well as viscosity changes due to crystallization and degassing. For runs in which chamber pressure increases, the time required to reach the new steady state (transition time) is a complex function of the pressure perturbation, while for decreasing chamber pressure, transition time is a monotonic function of the magnitude of the pressure perturbation. The transition to the new steady state is mainly controlled by magma compressibility, travel time (time required for one parcel of magma to travel from chamber to surface), and the time over which the pressure perturbation occurs. Results of many runs (> 300) were analyzed using dimensional analysis to reveal a general relationship which predicts the temporal evolution of magma effusion rate for a given sudden increase in chamber pressure; the product of the change in steady-state extrusion rate and the time required to reach the new steady state is linearly proportional to the normalized change in chamber pressure, the volume of the conduit, and the ratio of top and bottom conduit radii, and inversely proportional to the cubic root of volatile fraction. This relationship is used to interpret observed variations in two ongoing dome-building eruptions, the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, and Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
Thu, 01 Jul 2010 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2122/65102010-07-01T00:00:00Z