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Authors: Andronico, D.* 
lo Castro, M. D.* 
Sciotto, M.* 
Spina, L.* 
Title: The 2010 ash emissions at the summit craters of Mt Etna: Relationship with seismo-acoustic signals
Journal: Journal of geophysical research - solid earth 
Series/Report no.: /118 (2013)
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Issue Date: 28-Jan-2013
DOI: 10.1029/2012JB009895
Keywords: Mt Etna
seismo-acoustic signals
ash emissions
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: Mt Etna volcano (Italy) typically generates lava fountains and Strombolian eruptions from the summit craters, producing significant emissions of tephra which may cause moderate to high impact both in the atmosphere and on the ground. However, we have also witnessed a number of minor ash emissions that, although far less powerful, may pose considerable volcanic hazards. In this paper, we deal with three ash emissions occurring in 2010 (8 April at Southeast Crater, 25 August at Bocca Nuova, and 14–15 November at Northeast Crater), correlating their volcanological features with the associated seismoacoustic signals. We provide details regarding the chronology, eruption column, dispersal of the deposit, and texture (grain size, componentry and morphology) of the emitted ash. Each eruptive episode has also been characterized by means of seismo-acoustic analyses evaluating the volcanic acoustic-seismic ratio (VASR). Furthermore, the source of volcanic tremor recorded from March to December 2010 was localized. The joint volcanological and seismo-acoustic analyses allowed distinguishing two main kinds of ash emissions: types a (8 April and 25 August) and b (14–15 November). Regarding the former, the accumulation of gas below a dense cap rock obstructing the conduit vent, giving rise, with the uncorking, to impulsive explosivity, was hypothesized. The latter type instead is characterized by a longer-lasting and less explosivity, likely due to the existence of open conduit conditions. Therefore, type b ash emissions are less hazardous than type a. This simple model, regarding minor explosive activity, may constitute a starting point to assess the volcanic risk from unexpected explosions.
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