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Authors: Vilarini, G.* 
Scoccimarro, E.* 
White, K. D.* 
Arnold, J.* 
Schilling, K.* 
Ghosh, J.* 
Title: Projected Changes in Discharge in an Agricultural Watershed in Iowa
Journal: Journal of the American Water Resources Association 
Series/Report no.: 5/51 (2015)
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Issue Date: 2015
DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12318
Keywords: river discharge
statistical model
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.01. Atmosphere::01.01.02. Climate 
Abstract: Our improved capability to adapt to future changes in discharge is linked to our capability to predict the magnitude or at least the direction of these changes. For the agricultural U.S. Midwest, too much or too little water has severe socio-economic impacts. Here we focus on the Raccoon River at Van Meter, Iowa, and use a statistical approach to examine projected changes in discharge. We build on statistical models using rainfall and harvested corn and soybean acreage to explain the observed discharge variability. We then use projections of these two predictors to examine the projected discharge response. Results are based on seven global climate models part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5). There is not a strong signal of change in the discharge projections under the RCP 4.5. However the results for the RCP 8.5 point to a stronger changing signal related to larger projected increases in rainfall, resulting in increasing trends in particular in the upper part of the discharge distribution (i.e., 60th percentile and above). Examination of two hypothetical agricultural scenarios indicates that these increasing trends could be alleviated by decreasing the extent of the agricultural production. We also discuss how the methodology presented in this study represents a viable approach to move forward with the concept of return period for engineering design and management in a non-stationary world.
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