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Authors: Scollo, S.* 
Boselli, A.* 
Coltelli, M.* 
Leto, G.* 
Pisani, G.* 
Prestifilippo, M.* 
Spinelli, N.* 
Wang, X.* 
Title: Volcanic ash concentration during the 12 August 2011 Etna eruption
Issue Date: 24-Mar-2015
Series/Report no.: /42 (2015)
DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063027
Keywords: volcanic ash concentration
Etna eruption
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: Mount Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and an ideal laboratory to improve volcano ash monitoring and forecasting. During the volcanic episode on 12 August 2011, an eruption column rose up to several kilometers above sea level (asl), and the volcanic plume dispersed to the southeast. From the video-surveillance system, we were able to estimate variations in the column height (peak value of 9.5 ± 0.5km above sea level) with time. We derived the time-varying discharge rate (peak value of 60m3 s 1) and determined the ash concentration using a volcanic ash dispersal model. The modeled ash concentration was compared with lidar measurements using different particle effective radius, and differences are within the error bars. Volcanic ash concentrations range from 0.5 to 35.5 × 10 3gm 3. The comparison highlights that to improve volcanic ash forecasting during volcanic crises it is necessary to take into account the time-varying discharge rate of explosive eruptions.
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