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Authors: Guerrieri, L.* 
Merucci, L.* 
Corradini, S.* 
Pugnaghi, S.* 
Title: Evolution of the 2011 Mt. Etna ash and SO2 lava fountain episodes using SEVIRI data and VPR retrieval approach
Issue Date: 2015
Series/Report no.: /291 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.12.016
Keywords: ash and SO2 volcanic monitoring, retrieval techniques, remote sensing, SEVIRI data
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: In this paper an estimation ismade of the temporal evolution of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from Mt. Etna during its eruption phases. The retrieval is performed using MSG-SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation — Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager) images in the TIR (Thermal InfraRed) spectral range. The ash and SO2 plume abundance maps are computed using the Volcanic Plume Removal (VPR) procedure originally applied to MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors on board the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. As test cases, two 2011 lava fountain episodeswere considered. The set of parameters required by VPR for the Mt. Etna volcano, Volz type particles, and the SEVIRI sensor are presented. Once the parameters have been computed, the VPR approach requires as input only the SEVIRI-TIR radiances of the bands centered at 8.7, 10.8, and 12.0 μm, together with the plume temperature and altitude. The VPR returns maps of plume particles' effective radius, aerosol optical depth at 550 nm, and columnar abundance of ash and SO2. A new procedure for estimating wind speed and direction is also presented. Since the ash and SO2 abundance maps, and wind speed at the plume altitude are known, it is possible to reconstruct the ash and SO2 fluxes emitted during the eruption through time. The VPR procedure, applied to TIR SEVIRI data, allows for fast and reliable ash and SO2 retrieval with high temporal resolution during both day and night, and is thus suitable for operational use during a volcanic crisis.
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