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Authors: Musacchio, G.* 
Falsaperla, S.* 
Bernharðsdóttir, A. E.* 
Ferreira, M. A.* 
Sousa, M. L.* 
Carvalho, A.* 
Zonno, G.* 
Title: Education: can a bottom-up strategy help for earthquake disaster prevention?
Issue Date: 2016
Series/Report no.: 7/14 (2016)
DOI: 10.1007/s10518-015-9779-1
Keywords: disasters prevention, risk education, risk reduction, seismic hazard
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.11. Seismic risk 
Abstract: To comply with the need to spread the culture of earthquake disaster reduction, we rely on strategies that involve education. Risk education is a long-term process that passes from knowledge, through understanding, to choices and actions thrusting preparedness and prevention, over recovery. We set up strategies for prevention that encompass child and adult education, as a bottom-up approach, from raising awareness to reducing potential effects of disruption of society. Analysis of compulsory school education in three European countries at high seismic risk, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy, reveals that generally there are a few State-backed plans. The crucial aspects of risk education concerning natural hazards are starting age, incompleteness of textbooks, and lack of in-depth studies of the pupils upon completion of their compulsory education cycle. Hands-on tools, immersive environments, and learn-by-playing approaches are the most effective ways to raise interest in children, to provide memory imprint as a message towards a culture of safety. A video game, Treme-treme, was prepared to motivate, educate, train and communicate earthquake risk to players/pupils. The game focuses on do’s and don’ts for earthquake shaking, and allows children to think about what might be useful in the case of evacuation. Education of the general public was addressed using audio-visual products strongly linked to the social, historical and cultural background of each country. Five videos tackled rising of awareness of seismic hazards in Lisbon, the area surrounding Reykjavik, Naples, and Catania, four urban areas prone to earthquake disasters.
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