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Authors: Di Roberto, A.* 
Bertagnini, A.* 
Pompilio, M.* 
Bisson, M.* 
Title: Pyroclastic density currents at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): a case study of the 1930 eruption
Issue Date: 2014
Series/Report no.: 5/76 (2014)
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-014-0827-5
Keywords: Stromboli, Pyroclastic density currents, Paroxysms, Basaltic explosive volcanism,Volcanic hazard
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
Abstract: Pyroclastic density currents (PDC) related to paroxysmal eruptions have caused a large number of casualties in the recent history of Stromboli. We combine here a critical review of historical chronicles with detailed stratigraphic,textural, and petrographic analyses of PDC deposits emplaced at Stromboli over the last century to unravel the origin of currents, their flow mechanism and the depositional dynamics. We focus on the 1930 PDC as they are well described in historical accounts and because the 1930 eruption stands as the most voluminous and destructive paroxysm of the last 13 centuries. Stromboli PDC deposits are recognizable from their architecture and the great abundance of fresh, well-preserved juvenile material. General deposit features indicate that Stromboli PDC formed due to the syn-eruptive gravitational collapse of hot pyroclasts rapidly accumulated over steep slopes. Flow channelization within the several small valleys cut on the flanks of the volcano can enhance the mobility of PDC, as well as the production of fine particles by abrasion and comminution of hot juvenile fragments, thereby increasing the degree of fluidization. Textural analyses and historical accounts also indicate that PDC can be fast (15–20 m/s) and relatively hot (360–700 °C). PDC can thus flow right down the slopes of the volcano, representing a major hazard. For this reason, they must be adequately taken into account when compiling risk maps and evaluating volcanic hazard on the Island of Stromboli.
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