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Authors: Rizzo, A. L.* 
Barberi, F.* 
Carapezza, M. L.* 
Di Piazza, A.* 
Francalanci, L.* 
Sortino, F.* 
D'Alessandro, W.* 
Title: New mafic magma refilling a quiescent volcano: Evidence from He-Ne-Ar isotopes during the 2011–2012 unrest at Santorini, Greece
Issue Date: 26-Feb-2015
Series/Report no.: 3/16 (2015)
DOI: 10.1002/2014GC005653
Keywords: Santorini
3He/4He ratio
fluid inclusion
mafic magma
magma intrusion
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: n 2011-2012 Santorini was characterized by seismic-geodetic-geochemical unrest, which was unprecedented since the most-recent eruption occurred in 1950 and led to fear an eruption was imminent. This unrest offered a chance for investigating the processes leading to volcanic reactivation and the compositional characteristics of involved magma. We have thus analyzed the He-Ne-Ar-isotope composition of fluid inclusions in olivines and clinopyroxenes from cumulate mafic enclaves hosted in cogenetic dacitic lavas of the 1570–1573 and 1925–1928 eruptions of Nea Kameni. These unique data on Aegean volcanism were compared with those of gases collected in quiescent periods and during the unrest. The 3He/4He-ratios (3.1–4.0Ra) are significantly lower than the typical arc-volcano values (R/Ra~7–8), suggesting the occurrence of magma contamination in Santorini plumbing system, which would further modify the 3He/4He-ratio of parental magmas generated in the local metasomatized mantle. The 3He/4He-values of enclaves (3.1–3.6Ra) are comparable to those measured in gases during quiescent periods, confirming that enclaves reflect the He-isotope signature of magma residing at shallow depths and feeding passive degassing. A significant increase in soil CO2 flux from Nea Kameni and anomalous compositional variations in the fumaroles were identified during the unrest, accordingly with previous studies. Simultaneously, 3He/4He-ratios up to 4.0Ra were also measured, demonstrating that the unrest was due to the intrusion into the shallow plumbing system of a more-primitive 3He-rich magma, which is even volatile richer and less contaminated than mafic magma erupted as enclaves. This new intrusion did not however trigger an eruption.
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