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Authors: Geshi, N.* 
Neri, M.* 
Title: Dynamic feeder dyke systems in basaltic volcanoes: the exceptional example o fthe 1809 Etna eruption (Italy)
Other Titles: Dynamic feeder dyke systems in basaltic volcanoes
Issue Date: 21-Jul-2014
Series/Report no.: 2/13 (2014)
DOI: 10.3389/feart.2014.00013
Keywords: feeder dyke
basaltic volcanoes
flank eruptions
volcanic hazards
volcanic rift
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.04. Thermodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.05. Volcanic rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.08. Volcanic risk 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.03. Volcanic eruptions 
Abstract: In this paper, we describe the 1809 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy, which represents one historical rare case in which it is possible to observe details of the internal structure of the feeder system. This is possible thanks to the presence of two large pit craters located in the middle of the eruptive fracture field that allow studying a section of the shallow feeder system. Along the walls of one of these craters, we analysed well-exposed cross sections of the uppermost 15–20 m of the feeder system and related volcanic products. Here, we describe the structure, morphology and lithology of this portion of the 1809 feeder system, including the host rock which conditioned the propagation of the dyke, and compare the results with other recent eruptions. Finally, we propose the dynamic model of the magma behaviour inside a laterally-propagating feeder dyke, demonstrating how this dynamic triggered important changes in the eruptive style (from effusive/Strombolian to phreatomagmatic) during the same eruption. Our results are also useful for hazard assessment related to the development of flank eruptions, potentially the most hazardous type of eruption from basaltic volcanoes in densely urbanized areas, such as Mt. Etna.
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