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Authors: Mulargia, F.* 
Bizzarri, A.* 
Title: Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes
Issue Date: Mar-2015
Series/Report no.: /200(2015)
DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggu469
Keywords: forecasting and prediction
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
Abstract: Fluids—essentially meteoric water—are present everywhere in the Earth’s crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in formof solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝t [1/(n − 1) − 1] with n 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.
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