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Authors: Orsini, P.* 
Cantucci, B.* 
Quattrocchi, F.* 
Title: Large-scale numerical modelling of CO2 injection and containment phases for an Italian near-coast reservoir using PFLOTRAN
Issue Date: Jun-2014
Series/Report no.: /51 (2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.07.040
Keywords: CO2 geological storage modelling
PFLOTRAN case study
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.03. Groundwater processes 
Abstract: A potential CO2 storage site located offshore the west coast of Italy, has been modelled using PFLOTRAN assuming an injection rate of 1.5 Mtons/year for 20 years. The model predicts a CO2 footprint characterised by a diameter of about 3.5 km and a maximum pressure build up of 38 bars. The solubility trapping has been quantified, predicting a dissolution in brine of 69% and 79% of the total amount of CO2 injected after 1000 and 2000 years respectively. The residual trapping has also been found to play an important role, with 9% and 6% of the injected CO2 being locked into the hosting matrix pores after 1000 and 2000 years respectively. Considering a worst-case scenario for leakages, where zero critical capillarity pressure has been assumed, minor CO2 leakages through the caprock have been identified, caused by the combined effects of the long-term structural trapping and the large and lasting overpressure caused by the CO2 injection in an ideally closed system. Finally, some preliminary work undertaken as part of an ongoing effort to couple a geochemical model to the multi-phase flow simulations reveals i) small changes in mineral volume fraction and porosity during and after the injection (~5% after 1000 years), and ii) a not negligible self-sealing effect due to precipitation of calcite in the lower layer of the caprock. Further investigations and longer physical time runs are needed to confirm this assumption, but also to gain more confidence on the geochemical model built so far and to estimate the mineral trapping potential for this site.
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