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Authors: Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.* 
Tema, E.* 
Osete, M. L.* 
Lanza, R.* 
Title: Statistical Analysis of Palaeomagnetic Data from the Last Four Centuries: Evidence of Systematic Inclination Shallowing in Lava Flow Records.
Journal: Pure and Applied Geophysics 
Series/Report no.: 3/173 (2016)
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Issue Date: 2016
DOI: 10.1007/s00024-014-0946-0
Keywords: Inclination Shallowing
Volcanic data
Archeomagnetic data
Geomagnetic field models
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.02. Geomagnetic field variations and reversals 
04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.05. Main geomagnetic field 
04. Solid Earth::04.05. Geomagnetism::04.05.06. Paleomagnetism 
Abstract: The main objective of this work is to compare directional (declination and inclination) volcanic and archaeomagnetic data for the last four centuries (1600–1990) with the historical geomagnetic predictions given by the GUFM1 model which spans from 1590 to 1990. The results show statistical agreement between archaeomagnetic data and directions given by the geomagnetic field model. However, when comparing the volcanic data with the model predictions, marked inclination shallowing is observed. This systematically lower inclination has already been observed in local palaeomagnetic studies (Italy, Mexico and Hawaii) for the 20th century, by comparing recent lava flows with the International Reference Geomagnetic Field (IGRF) model. Here, we show how this inclination shallowing is statistically present at worldwide scale for the last 400 years with mean inclination deviation around 3º lower than the historical geomagnetic field model predictions.
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