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Authors: Hernández, P. A.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Ramos, A.* 
Pérez, N. M.* 
Márquez, A.* 
Quevedo, R.* 
Barrancos, J.* 
Padrón, E.* 
Padilla, G. D.* 
López, D.* 
Rodríguez Santana, A.* 
Melián, G. V.* 
Dionis, S.* 
Rodríguez, F.* 
Calvo, D.* 
Spampinato, L.* 
Title: Magma emission rates fromshallow submarine eruptions using airborne thermal imaging
Journal: Remote sensing of environment 
Series/Report no.: /154(2014)
Publisher: Elsevier Inc NY Journals
Issue Date: Sep-2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.08.027
Keywords: Shallow submarine eruption
Thermal airborne monitoring
Erupted volume
Effusion rate
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: The effusion rate is the most important parameter to gatherwhen a volcanic eruption occurs, because it controls the way inwhich a lava body grows, extends and expands, influencing its dimensional properties. Calculation of lava flow volume from thermal images collected by helicopter surveys has been largely used during the last decade for monitoring subaerial effusive eruptions. However, due to the depths where volcanic activity occurs, monitoring submarine volcanic eruptions is a very difficult task. The 2011–2012 submarine volcanic eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands, has provided a unique and excellent opportunity to monitor eruptive processes occurring on the seabed. The use of a hand-held thermal camera during daily helicopter flights allowed us to estimate for the first time the daily and total erupted magma volumes from a submarine eruption. The volume of magma emitted during this eruption has been estimated at 300 Mm3, giving an average effusion rate of ~25 m3 s−1. Thermal imagery by helicopter proved to be a fast, inexpensive, safe and reliable technique of monitoring volcanic eruptions when they occur on the shallow seabed.
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