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Authors: Yuce, G.* 
Italiano, F.* 
D'Alessandro, W.* 
Yalcin, T. H.* 
Yasin, D. U.* 
Gulbay, A. H.* 
Ozyurt, N. N.* 
Rojay, B.* 
Karabacak, V.* 
Bellomo, S.* 
Brusca, L.* 
Yang, T. F.* 
Fu, C. C.* 
Lai, C. W.* 
Ozacar, A.* 
Walia, V.* 
Title: Origin and interactions of fluids circulating over the Amik Basin (Hatay, Turkey) and relationships with the hydrologic, geologic and tectonic settings
Journal: Chemical geology 
Series/Report no.: /388(2014)
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
Issue Date: Sep-2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.09.006
Keywords: Dead Sea Fault
Gas geochemistry
He isotopes
C isotopes
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.03. Groundwater processes 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.02. Carbon cycling 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.03. Chemistry of waters 
03. Hydrosphere::03.04. Chemical and biological::03.04.05. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
Abstract: We investigated the geochemical features of the fluids circulating over the Amik Basin (SE Turkey–Syria border), which is crossed by the Northern extension of theDSF (Dead Sea Fault) and represents the boundary area of three tectonic plates (Anatolian, Arabian and African plates). We collected 34 water samples (thermal and cold from natural springs and boreholes) as well as 8 gas samples (bubbling and gas seepage) besides the gases dissolved in the sampled waters. The results show that the dissolved gas phase is a mixture of shallow (atmospheric) and deep components either of mantle and crustal origin. Coherently the sampled waters are variable mixtures of shallow and deep ground waters, the latter being characterised by higher salinity and longer residence times. The deep groundwaters (fromboreholes deeper than 1000 m)have a CH4-dominated dissolved gas phase related to the presence of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The very unique tectonic setting of the area includes the presence of an ophiolitic block outcropping in the westernmost area on the African Plate, as well as basalts located to the North and East on the Arabic Plate. The diffuse presence of CO2-enriched gases, although diluted by the huge groundwater circulation, testifies a regional degassing activity. Fluids circulating over the ophiolitic block are marked by H2-dominated gases with abiogenic methane and high-pH waters. The measured 3He/4He isotopic ratios display contributions from both crustal and mantle-derived sources over both sides of the DSF. Although the serpentinization process is generally independent from mantle-type contribution, the recorded helium isotopic ratios highlight variable contents of mantle-derived fluids. Due to the absence of recent volcanism over the western side of the basin (African Plate), we argue that CO2-rich volatiles carrying mantle-type helium and enriched in heavy carbon, are degassed by deep-rooted regional faults rather than from volcanic sources.
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