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Authors: Falsaperla, S.* 
Behncke, B.* 
Langer, H.* 
Neri, M.* 
Salerno, G. G.* 
Giammanco, S.* 
Pecora, E.* 
Biale, E.* 
Title: ‘‘Failed’’ eruptions revealed by pattern classification analysis of gas emission and volcanic tremor data at Mt. Etna, Italy
Issue Date: Jan-2014
Series/Report no.: /103 (2014)
DOI: 10.1007/s00531-013-0964-7
Keywords: Volcano monitoring
Failed eruption
Mt. Etna
Volcanic tremor
Plume SO2 flux
In-soil radon
Thermal data
Subject Classification05. General::05.01. Computational geophysics::05.01.01. Data processing 
Abstract: During the spring of 2007, paroxysmal activity occurred at the South-East Crater of Mt Etna, always associated with sharp rises in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor. Activity ranged from strong Strombolian explosions to lava fountains coupled with copious emission of lava flows and tephra. During inter-eruptive periods, recurrent seismic unrest episodes were observed in form of temporary enhancements of the volcanic tremor amplitude, but they did not culminate in eruptive activity. Here, we present the results of an analysis of these inter-eruptive periods by integrating seismic volcanic tremor, in-soil radon, plume SO2 flux and thermal data. SO2 flux and thermal radiation are envisaged as the “smoking gun”, certifying that changes in seismic or radon data can be considered as volcanogenic. Short-term changes were investigated by pattern classification based on Kohonen Maps and fuzzy clustering on volcanic tremor, radon and ambient parameters (pressure and temperature). Our results unveil ‘failed’ eruptions between February and April 2007 that are explained as ascending magma batches, which triggered repeated episodes of gas pulses and rock fracturing, but that failed to reach the surface.
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