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Authors: Avallone, A.* 
Rovelli, A.* 
Di Giulio, G.* 
Improta, L.* 
Ben-Zion, Y.* 
Milana, G.* 
Cara, F.* 
Title: Wave-guide effects in very high rate GPS record of the 6 April 2009, Mw 6.1 L'Aquila, central Italy earthquake
Issue Date: 21-Jan-2014
Series/Report no.: 1/119 (2014)
DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010475
Keywords: High-rate GPS
Transient deformation
L'Aquila earthquake
fault-guided waves
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
Abstract: A 10 Hz sampling frequency GPS station was installed near L'Aquila a few days before the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.1 earthquake. It recorded displacement waveforms during the main shock and the largest Mw 5.4 aftershock of 7 April. The horizontal components of the main shock contain a high-amplitude (43 cm peak-to-peak) nearly harmonic (1 Hz) wave train not evident in other nearby instrumental records. The persistency of this feature during aftershocks recorded by a temporarily colocated seismological station highlights a local site effect. Traditional models based on near-surface velocity structure and topography variations fail to reproduce the size and frequency band of the observed amplified motion. The amplified wave train can be explained by a low-velocity fault zone layer below the station. This model fits the delay of the large-amplitude nearly harmonic wave train after the S wave phase and is consistent with the variation in the fault excitation efficiency between the two shocks in relation to their different source depth and location. Synthetic calculation of trapped waves in a model consisting of two quarter spaces separated by a 650 m wide low-velocity zone with 50% velocity reduction and Q value of 20 fit well the observed anomalous record. The parameters of the model fault zone layer are consistent with geological evidence of a broad damage zone adjacent to the station and a similar site response found in this crustal zone with ambient noise. Results of shallow seismic surveys and sonic logs from deep wells provide independent constraints on the host rock velocities.
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