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Authors: Martelli, M.* 
Rizzo, A. l.* 
Renzulli, A.* 
Ridolfi, F.* 
Arienzo, I.* 
Rosciglione, A.* 
Title: Noble-gas signature of magmas from a heterogeneous mantle wedge: the case of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)
Journal: Chemical geology 
Series/Report no.: /368 (2014)
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
Issue Date: Jan-2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.01.003
Keywords: Helium isotope
mantle wedge
fluid inclusions
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.08. Volcanic arcs 
Abstract: We report on the variation of the elemental (He, Ne, and Ar) and isotopic (He and Ar) compositions of olivine and clinopyroxene-hosted fluid inclusions hosted in lavas, pyroclastics, and cumulate xenoliths from the last 60 ka of the eruptive history of Stromboli volcano, Italy. Samples belong to (i) the present-day activity as represented by shoshonitic (SHO) basalts, i.e., pumices with low porphyritic (LP) content and high porphyritic (HP) scoriae; (ii) the subalkaline versus alkaline products erupted at Stromboli during its subaerial history among the extrememagmatic series, i.e., calc-alkaline (CA) and potassic (KS); and (iii) the only known ultramafic cumulates (San Bartolo wehrlite xenoliths, SBX) outcropping in the island, carried to the surface by recent (ca. 2 ka) basaltic lava. To interpret the results better, we also investigated trace elements in the clinopyroxenes of wehrlite xenoliths and the Sr and Nd isotopes of all of the products in which the 3He/4He ratio was measured. Wehrlite xenoliths are igneous cumulates crystallized at mantle depth that mostly consist of clinopyroxene and olivine crystals with limited compositional variation. The texture, mineral chemistry, pattern of trace elements and Sr–Nd-isotope ratios (in clinopyroxene) suggest that these cumulates were produced by the early crystallization of a primitive basaltic magma with CA or HKCA–SHO affinity. The gas contents measured in themafic crystals decrease fromthewehrlite xenoliths through LP pumice, CA and KS lavas and, finally, to the HP scoria. This observation is consistent with crystallization and fluid entrapment frommantle depths to progressively shallower crustal levels. The lowgas content extracted from the HP crystals did not allow measurement of their 3He/4He ratios. Most of the investigated crystals exhibit a 3He/4He ratio in the range of 4.0–4.9 Ra, with only the KS mafic minerals exhibiting lower 3He/4He values (≤3.5 Ra). The low values of He-isotope ratios relative to those of the most-uncontaminated mantle source of the Aeolian lavas (i.e., 3He/4He ~7 Ra at Alicudi) and in common volcanic arcs suggest that the Stromboli mantle wedge is more contaminated by sediments and aqueous fluids derived by the active subduction of the Ionian slab. We also hypothesize that a process of mantle He loss that occurred during the mantle metasomatism contributed to the decrease of 3He/4He. The low 3He/4He values of the KS minerals with respect to the other Stromboli magmatic series are consistent with the higher Sr- and lower Nd-isotope ratios measured in the same samples and are attributed to source heterogeneity. Finally, data for the 3He/4He ratios from mafic minerals were compared with those of currently emitted hydrothermal fluids, which are regularly sampled for volcano surveillance. The maximum 3He/4He ratio found in the hydrothermal fluids matched the maximum ratio measured in the LP fluid inclusions (i.e., 4.6 Ra) and thus corresponds to the upper limit that should be expected for surface gases during or before high-intensity eruptive events in which a deep gas component
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