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Authors: Bianchi, C.* 
Baskaradas, J. A.* 
Pezzopane, M.* 
Pietrella, M.* 
Sciacca, U.* 
Zuccheretti, E.* 
Title: Fading in the HF ionospheric channel and the role of irregularities
Issue Date: 11-Apr-2013
Series/Report no.: 3/52(2013)
DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2013.03.035
Keywords: Fading fluctuation;
Multipath time-variant channel
Ionospheric irregularities
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.02. Dynamics 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.05. Wave propagation 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.06. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: It is well known that the ionosphere affects radio wave propagation especially in the high frequency (HF) range. HF radio waves reflected by the ionosphere can reach considerable distances, often with changes in amplitude, phase, and frequency. The ionosphere is a dispersive in frequency and time, bi-refractive, absorbing medium, in which multipath propagation due to traveling irregularities is very frequent. The traveling irregularities undulate the reflecting ionospheric layer, introducing variations in signal amplitude (fading). In this multipath time variant channel fading is mainly considered, even though it is not the sole effect. Echo signals from a single reflection, as in ionospheric vertical sounding (VIS) techniques, are affected by a certain degree of variability even in quiet ionospheric conditions. In this work the behavior of the ionospheric channel is studied and characterized by observing the power variation of received echoes using the VIS technique. Multipath fading was analyzed quantifying the power variation of the signal echo due to irregularities on a temporal scale from 0.5 to 256 s. An experimental set-up derived from an ionosonde was implemented and the analysis was performed employing a special numerical algorithm operating off-line on the acquired time sequence of the signal. The gain-loss of the irregularity shapes are determined in some special cases.
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