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Authors: Jolis, E. M.* 
Freda, C.* 
Troll, V. R.* 
Deegan, F. M.* 
Blythe, L. S.* 
McLeod, C. L.* 
Davidson, J. P.* 
Title: Experimental simulation of magma–carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius, Italy
Issue Date: 2013
Series/Report no.: /166(2013)
DOI: 10.1007/s00410-013-0931-0
Keywords: Mt. Vesuvius
Magma–carbonate interaction
CO2 liberation
tExperimental petrology
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: We simulated the process of magma–carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius in short duration piston-cylinder experiments under controlled magmatic conditions (from 0 to 300 s at 0.5 GPa and 1,200 C), using a Vesuvius shoshonite composition and upper crustal limestone and dolostone as starting materials. Backscattered electron images and chemical analysis (major and trace elements and Sr isotopes) of sequential experimental products allow us to identify the textural and chemical evolution of carbonated products during the assimilation process. We demonstrate that melt–carbonate interaction can be extremely fast (minutes), and results in dynamic contamination of the host melt with respect to Ca, Mg and87Sr/86Sr, coupled with intense CO2 vesiculation at the melt–carbonate interface. Binary mixing between carbon- ate and uncontaminated melt cannot explain the geochemical variations of the experimental charges in full and convection and diffusion likely also operated in the charges. Physical mixing and mingling driven by exsolving volatiles seems to be a key process to promote melt homogenisation. Our results reinforce hypotheses that magma–carbonate interaction is a relevant and ongoing process at Mt. Vesuvius and one that may operate not only on a geological, but on a human timescale.
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