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Authors: Bizzarri, A 
Title: Energy flux of propagating ruptures with cohesive force
Issue Date: Oct-2013
Series/Report no.: 5/103(2013)
DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.053
Keywords: Coseismic ruptures
Energy flux
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
Abstract: The energy flux F at the rupture tip has been previously computed only for 2D steady-state singular cracks. In this paper, I compute F for fully dynamic 3D ruptures, propagating both with constant and variable rupture speed (v_r) over finite faults directed by a governing law with a cohesive zone (and thus nonsingular ruptures). The results presented here indicate that F is positive and increasing over the whole range of v_r from zero up to P-wave speed. This is in contrast with 2D steady-state singular cracks, which predict the existence of a forbidden zone in the range of rupture speeds because in that interval F would be negative. Moreover, I found that in 3D ruptures with cohesive force, F is proportional to v_r, again in contrast to 2D steady-state singular cracks, in which F is not a unique function of v_r and also exhibits an inverse dependence on v_r. More specifically, it emerges that fast earthquakes tend to have a higher energy flux at the crack tip compared with slow ruptures. Finally, I show that the magnitude of F is basically due to its component aligned in the direction of the initial shear stress.
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