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Authors: Pesci, A.* 
Teza, G.* 
Casula, G.* 
Fabris, M.* 
Bonforte, A.* 
Title: Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy)
Issue Date: 13-May-2013
Series/Report no.: /5(2013)
DOI: 10.3390/rs5052238
Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning
aerial photogrammetry
3D modeling
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.06. Measurements and monitoring 
Abstract: Abstract: Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy) are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS) highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase) in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not OPEN ACCESS Remote Sens. 2013, 5 2239 indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.
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