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Authors: Qin, K.* 
Wu, L. X.* 
De Santis, A.* 
Meng, J.* 
Ma, W. Y.* 
Cianchini, G.* 
Title: Quasi-synchronous multi-parameter anomalies associated with the 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence
Issue Date: 16-Apr-2012
Series/Report no.: / 12 (2012)
DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-1059-2012
Keywords: aftershock
air temperature
earthquake event
earthquake precursor
earthquake prediction
latent heat flux
soil moisture
statistical analysis
temperature anomaly
New Zealand
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.05. Downhole, radioactivity, remote sensing, and other methods 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.01. Earthquake faults: properties and evolution 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.03. Earthquake source and dynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring 
Abstract: Positive thermal anomalies about one month before the 3 September 2010 Mw Combining double low line 7.1 New Zealand earthquake and " coincidental" quasi-synchronous fluctuations of GPS displacement were reported. Whether there were similar phenomena associated with the aftershocks? To answer it, the following was investigated: multiple parameters including surface and near-surface air temperature, surface latent heat flux, GPS displacement and soil moisture, using a long-term statistical analysis method. We found that local thermal and deformation anomalies appeared quasi-synchronously in three particular tectonic zones, not only about one month before the mainshock, but also tens of days before the 21 February 2011 Mw Combining double low line 6.3 aftershock, and that the time series of soil moisture on the epicenter pixel had obvious peaks on most of the anomalous days. Based on local tectonic geology, hydrology and meteorology, the particular lithosphere-coversphere-atmosphere coupling mode is interpreted and four mechanisms (magmatic-hydrothermal fluids upwelling, soil moisture increasing, underground pore gases leaking, and positive holes activating and recombining) are discussed.
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