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Authors: Vallianatos, F.* 
Nardi, A.* 
Carluccio, R.* 
Chiappini, M.* 
Title: Experimental Evidence of a Non-Extensive Statistical Physics Behavior of Electromagnetic Signals Emitted from Rocks Under Stress up to Fracture. Preliminary Results
Issue Date: Jun-2012
Series/Report no.: 3 / 60 (2012)
DOI: 10.2478/s11600-012-0030-z
Keywords: electromagnetic emissions
non-extensive statistical physics
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.04. Mineral physics and properties of rocks 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.06. Surveys, measurements, and monitoring 
Abstract: The application of mechanical stress on a rock sample can induce electromagnetic emissions. Such emissions can be detected experimentally and in principle could be used as precursors of the upcoming failure. Using experimental observations of stress-induced electromagnetic emissions (SIEME), we apply the concepts of non-extensive statistical physics (NESP) to the time intervals between consecutive SIEME. The application of NESP is appropriate to systems such as fracture-induced effects, where non-linearity, long-range interactions and scaling are important. We find that the SIEME energy release distribution and the inter-event time distribution reflect a sub-extensive system with thermodynamic q-values of the order of qE = 1.67 and qτ ≈ 1.7, respectively.
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