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Authors: Ordaz, M.* 
Martinelli, F.* 
D'Amico, V.* 
Meletti, C.* 
Title: CRISIS2008: A Flexible Tool to Perform Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment
Journal: Seismological Research Letters 
Series/Report no.: 3/84 (2013)
Publisher: Seismological Society of America
Issue Date: May-2013
DOI: 10.1785/0220120067
Keywords: Seismic Hazard
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.02. Earthquake interactions and probability 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.04. Ground motion 
04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.11. Seismic risk 
Abstract: In the frame of the Italian research project INGV-DPC S2 (, funded by the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC; National Civil Protection Department) within the agreement 2007-2009, a tool for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) was developed. The main goal of the project was to provide a flexible computational tool for PSHA; the requirements considered essential for the success of the project included: • ability to handle both stationary and non-stationary earthquake time-occurrence models; • ability to use ground-motion prediction models that are not parametric equations but probabilistic "footprints" of the intensities generated by earthquakes of known magnitude and focal characteristics. Usually, these footprints are results of ground motion simulations. Some commonly used programs (e.g., FRISK, by McGuire, 1978; SEISRISK III, by Bender and Perkins, 1987) and more recent and state-of-the-art tools (e.g. OpenSHA, by Field et al., 2003,; OpenQuake, for PSHA were analyzed. It was decided to focus on CRISIS2007, which was already a mature and well known application (e.g., Kalyan Kumar and Dodagoudar, 2011; Teraphan et al., 2011; D’Amico et al., 2012; see also, but also suitable for additional development and evolution since its source code is freely available on request. The computational tool resulted in an extensive redesign and renovation of the previous CRISIS2007 version. CRISIS is a computer program for PSHA, originally developed in the late 1980's using Fortran as programming language (Ordaz, 1991). In this format, still without a graphical user interface (GUI), it was distributed as part of SEISAN tools (Ottemöller et al., 2011). Ten years later, a GUI was constructed, generating what was called CRISIS99 (Ordaz, 1999). In this version, all the graphic features were written in Visual Basic, but the computation engine remained a Fortran dynamic link library. The reason for the use of mixed-language programming was that computations in Visual Basic were extremely slow. Around 2007 the program was upgraded, in view of the advantages offered by the object-oriented technologies. An object-oriented programming language was required and the natural choice was Visual Basic.Net. In the new version (called CRISIS2007), both the GUI and the computation engine were written in the same language. Finally, in the frame of the mentioned S2 project, starting from 2008, the program was split into two logical layers: core (CRISIS Core Library) and presentation (CRISIS2008). In addition, a new presentation layer was developed for accessing the same functionalities via Web (CRISISWeb). It is worth noting that CRISIS has been mainly written by people that are, at the same time, PSHA practitioners. Therefore, the development loop has been relatively short, and most of the modifications and improvements have been made to satisfy the needs of the developers themselves.
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