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Authors: Carafa, M. M. C.* 
Barba, S.* 
Title: The stress field in Europe: optimal orientations with confidence limits
Other Titles: Stress in Europe with confidence limits
Issue Date: 2013
DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggt024
Keywords: Neotectonics
Seismicity and tectonics
Fractures and faults
Intra-plate processes
Plate motions
Dynamics: gravity and tectonics
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.03. Geodesy::04.03.01. Crustal deformations 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.05. Stress 
05. General::05.02. Data dissemination::05.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: In this study, we modify and extend a data analysis technique to determine the stress orientations between data clusters by adding an additional constraint governing the probability algorithm. We apply this technique to produce a map of the maximum horizontal compressive stress (S_Hmax) orientations in the greater European region (including Europe, Turkey and Mediterranean Africa). Using the World Stress Map dataset release 2008, we obtain analytical probability distributions of the directional differences as a function of the angular distance, θ. We then multiply the probability distributions that are based on pre-averaged data within θ<3° of the interpolation point and determine the maximum likelihood estimate of the S_Hmax orientation. At a given distance, the probability of obtaining a particular discrepancy decreases exponentially with discrepancy. By exploiting this feature observed in the World Stress Map release 2008 dataset, we increase the robustness of our S_Hmax determinations. For a reliable determination of the most likely S_Hmax orientation, we require that 90% confidence limits be less than ±60° and a minimum of three clusters, which is achieved for 57% of the study area, with small uncertainties of less than ±10° for 7% of the area. When the data density exceeds 0.8×10^-3 data/km2, our method provides a means of reproducing significant local patterns in the stress field. Several mountain ranges in the Mediterranean display 90° changes in the S_Hmax orientation from their crests (which often experience normal faulting) and their foothills (which often experience thrust faulting). This pattern constrains the tectonic stresses to a magnitude similar to that of the topographic stresses.
Description: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: The Authors 2003. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Appears in Collections:Papers Published / Papers in press

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Geophys. J. Int.-2013-Carafa-Barba_dowloadable.pdfMain article - downloadable final draft3.25 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Geophys. J. Int.-2013-Carafa-Barba_publisher_pdf.pdfMain article - publisher pdf (restricted access)9.11 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
readme_supplementary_files.txtSupplementary files - readme1.88 kBTextView/Open
Figure_S1.pdfSupplementary files - Figure S1555.89 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Table_S1.zipSupplementary files - Table S1 (csv zip)743.69 kBZIPView/Open
Table_S1.csv.gzSupplementary files - Table S1 (csv gz)743.57 kBgzipView/Open
CarafaBarba_ggt024_SupplementaryFiles.zipSupplementary files - Figure S1 and Table S12 MBZIPView/Open
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