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Authors: Bonaccorso, A.* 
Calvari, S.* 
Currenti, G.* 
Del Negro, C.* 
Ganci, G.* 
Linde, A.* 
Napoli, R.* 
Sacks, S.* 
Sicali, A.* 
Title: From source to surface: dynamics of Etna’s lava fountains investigated by continuous strain, magnetic, ground and satellite thermal data
Journal: Bulletin of volcanology 
Series/Report no.: /75 (2013)
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Issue Date: 27-Jan-2013
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-013-0690-9
Keywords: Etna volcano
lava fountain
magnetic data
thermal data
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
Abstract: We investigated the eruptive episodes that occurred at Etna volcano on 15 November 2011 and 18 March 2012 using different types of data. We present novel data from two recently installed strainmeters that recorded unique signals during the lava fountain phases of these events. The strainmeter data, integrated with those recorded by the magnetic network, and with satellite and ground thermal data, allowed us to follow the path of a gas-rich magma batch from the source inside the volcano to the surface and atmosphere. The amplitude ratio of the volumetric strain changes constrained the storage depth of the magma feeding the lava fountains above 1.5 km below sea level. Magnetic data revealed an attempted shallow lateral intrusion, whereas ground and satellite thermal data furnished a quantification of the total erupted volumes of ∼2.2×106m3 for the 15 November event and ∼3.0×106m3 for the 18 March event. Despite different durations of the explosive and effusive phases of the two lava fountain events, the total erupted volume was quite similar, suggesting the emptying of a shallow storage system displaying a steady behaviour.
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