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Authors: Favali, P.* 
Chierici, F.* 
Marinaro, G.* 
Giovanetti, G.* 
Azzarone, A.* 
Beranzoli, L.* 
De Santis, A.* 
Embriaco, D.* 
Monna, S.* 
Lo Bue, N.* 
Sgroi, T.* 
Cianchini, G.* 
Badiali, L.* 
Qamili, E.* 
De Caro, M. G.* 
Falcone, G.* 
Montuori, C.* 
Frugoni, F.* 
NEMO Collaboration* 
Pignagnoli, L.* 
Zitellini, N.* 
Federico, B.* 
Bruni, F.* 
Gasparoni, F.* 
Pavan, G.* 
Title: NEMO-SN1 Abyssal Cabled Observatory in the Western Ionian Sea
Journal: IEEE journal of oceanic engineering 
Series/Report no.: /38 (2013)
Publisher: IEEE / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated
Issue Date: 2013
DOI: 10.1109/JOE.2012.2224536
Keywords: NEMO-SN1 cabled observatory
High-energy astrophysics
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.01. General::03.01.04. Ocean data assimilation and reanalysis 
03. Hydrosphere::03.01. General::03.01.08. Instruments and techniques 
03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.04. Measurements and monitoring 
03. Hydrosphere::03.02. Hydrology::03.02.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: The “NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory - Submarine Network 1” (NEMO-SN1) seafloor observatory is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, Western Ionian Sea, off Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy) at 2100 m water depth, 25 km from the harbour of the city of Catania. It is a prototype of a cabled deep-sea multiparameter observatory and the first one operating with real-time data transmission in Europe since 2005. NEMO-SN1 is also the first-established node of the “European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory” (EMSO,, one of the incoming European large-scale research infrastructures included in the Roadmap of the “European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures” (ESFRI, since 2006. EMSO will specifically address long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to Marine Ecosystems, Climate Change and Geo-hazards. NEMO-SN1 has been deployed and developed over the last decade thanks to Italian funding and to the EC project “European Seas Observatory NETwork - Network of Excellence” (ESONET-NoE, 2007-2011) that funded the “Listening to the Deep Ocean - Demonstration Mission” (LIDO-DM) and a technological interoperability test ( NEMOSN1 is performing geophysical and environmental long-term monitoring by acquiring seismological, geomagnetic, gravimetric, accelerometric, physico-oceanographic, hydroacoustic, bio-acoustic measurements. Scientific objectives include studying seismic signals, tsunami generation and warnings, its hydroacoustic precursors, and ambient noise characterisation in terms of marine mammal sounds, environmental and anthropogenic sources. NEMO-SN1 is also an important test-site for the construction of the “Kilometre-Cube Underwater Neutrino Telescope” (KM3NeT,, another large-scale research infrastructure included in the ESFRI Roadmap based on a large volume neutrino telescope. The description of the observatory and its most recent implementations is presented. On 9th June, 2012 NEMO-SN1 was successfully deployed and is working in real-time.
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