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Authors: Italiano, F.* 
Sasmaz, A.* 
Yuce, G.* 
Ocan, O.* 
Title: Thermal fluids along the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ): geochemical features and relationships with the tectonic setting
Journal: Chemical geology 
Series/Report no.: /339 (2013)
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
Issue Date: 2013
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.07.027
Keywords: fluids
seismic activity
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.01. Geochemical exploration 
Abstract: A geochemical investigation has been carried out on the gas phase associated to thermal fluids discharged along three different segments of the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ, Turkey) running from Malatya to the Triple Junction area (Karliova) where the East and North Anatolian Faults cross each other. CO2 is always the major gaseous component in both bubbling and dissolved gases with variable amounts of nitrogen helium and CH4. The isotopic ratios of helium range from 0.44 to 4.41Rac (values corrected for the atmospheric contamination) and cover a range spanning from crustal to magmatic-type values. The isotopic composition of carbon (CO2) shows values in the range from -5.6 to -0.2 ‰ vs PDB for the bubbling gases in contrast with the positive values (from 0.3 to 3.4‰ vs PDB) detected for the Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TDIC). Coupling the information from the isotopic and chemical composition, it results that mantle-derived fluids are driven to the surface by lithospheric structures. Despite the absence of outcropping volcanic products, the tectonic setting of the different segments plays a major role in releasing mantle-type fluids . The mantle derived fluids interact at shallower levels with circulating waters and originate geothermal systems which equilibration temperatures are estimated to be up to 360°C. The collected thermal fluids show different geochemical features consistent with processes occurring at two different levels: a deep level where mantle-originated fluids are taken either from the upper mantle and from intruded magma batches, and a shallower level, in the upper crust, where Gas Water Interactions (GWI), secondary CO2 production, fractionation processes induced chemical and isotopic modifications of the pristine gas composition.
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