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Authors: Carniel, S.* 
Kantha, L.* 
Bergamasco, A.* 
Prandke, H.* 
Small, R. J.* 
Sclavo, M.* 
Title: Layered structures in the upper Ligurian Sea
Issue Date: 2010
Series/Report no.: 12/125(2010)
DOI: 10.1393/ncb/i2010-10945-8
Keywords: turbulence
Ligurian Sea
Subject Classification03. Hydrosphere::03.03. Physical::03.03.04. Upper ocean and mixed layer processes 
Abstract: During the dedicated sea-truth cruise LIGURE2007, a part of the intensive observational campaign Ligurian Sea Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE) performed in the eastern Ligurian Sea (Italy) from 16th to 23rd June in 2007, the R/V Urania carried out an intensive microstructure measurement program. Most of these measurements were made between 17th and 20th, in the vicinity of a spar buoy anchored 60 km off the coast in a region with a water column depth of approximately 1500 m; the prevailing light wind conditions and intense solar radiation limited the depth of the upper mixed layer to about 10–15m. We carried out measurements of the structure of the upper water column to a depth exceeding about 200 m. Interestingly, the microstructure measurements revealed multiple layers of relatively elevated dissipation and diffusivity rates around a depth of about 100 m. Since the water column is shown not to be not conducive to double-diffusion, these layered structures must have been produced by small-scale shear due to other processes, such as breaking internal waves. In this paper, we describe the oceanographic conditions prevailing at the time of the measurements, as well as the general turbulent properties in the upper part of the water column. In particular, the layered structures below the mixed layer are discussed in detail, with suggestions as to the likely origin and possible ways of investigating these processes.
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