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Authors: Giammanco, S.* 
Neri, M.* 
Salerno, G.* 
Caltabiano, T.* 
Burton, M. R.* 
Longo, V.* 
Title: Evidence for a recent change in the shallow plumbing system of Mt. Etna (Italy): Gas geochemistry and structural data during 2001–2005
Issue Date: 2013
Series/Report no.: /251(2013)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.06.001
Keywords: Geochemical modeling
volcano monitoring
volcanic gases
Tectonics and magmatism
flank collapse
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.01. Earth Interior::04.01.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.09. Structural geology 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.02. Geodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.05. Stress 
04. Solid Earth::04.07. Tectonophysics::04.07.07. Tectonics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.01. Gases 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.04. Thermodynamics 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.06. Volcano monitoring 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
05. General::05.08. Risk::05.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: We analyzed crater SO2 fluxes from Mt Etna, together with soil CO2 effluxes from the volcano's flanks, in the period from 2001 to 2005. Between the 2001 and 2002–2003 eruptions, persistently low values of both parameters suggest that no new gas-rich magma was accumulating at shallow depth (b5 km) within Etna's central conduit, whereas very high SO2 sin-eruptive fluxes during the two eruptions indicated sudden decompression of an un-degassed magma rising along newly-formed eccentric conduits. In November 2003, soil CO2 data indicate migration of gas-rich magma from deep (>10 km) to shallow (b5 km) portions of the feeding conduits, preceded by an increase in crater SO2 fluxes. A similar behavior was observed also during and after the following 2004–2005 eruption. This degassing style matches a period of increased structural instability of the volcanic edifice caused by acceleration of spreading that affected both its eastern and southern flanks. Spreading could have triggered progressively deeper depressurization in the central conduit, inducing release of the more soluble gas (SO2) first, and then of CO2, contrary to what was observed before the 2001 eruption. This suggests that the edifice has depressurized, promoting ascent of fresh-magma and increasing permeability favouring release of CO2 flux. By integrating geochemical and structural data, previous degassing models developed at Mt. Etna have been updated to advance the understanding of eruptive events that occurred in recent years.
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