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Authors: Fagundes, P. R.* 
Bittencourt, J. A.* 
Abreu, A. J.* 
Moor, L. P.* 
Muella, M. T. A. H.* 
Sahai, Y.* 
Abalde, J. R.* 
Pezzopane, M.* 
Sobral, J. H. A.* 
Abdu, M. A.* 
Pimenta, A. A.* 
Amorim, D. C. M.* 
Title: Atypical nighttime spread-F structure observed near the southern crest of the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly
Journal: Journal of geophysical research 
Series/Report no.: /117(2012)
Issue Date: 7-Apr-2012
DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017118
Keywords: spread F
equatorial ionization anomaly
traveling ionospheric disturbance
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.02. Dynamics 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.05. Wave propagation 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.06. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: An atypical nighttime spread-F structure is observed on ionograms at or above the F2 trace, near the crest of the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. This ionospheric atypical spread-F phenomenon was observed using two closed spaced( 115 km) ionospheric soundings stations located in Sao Jose dos Campos (23.21 S, 45.97 W) and Cachoeira Paulista (22.70 S, 45.01 W), Brazil, in a low-latitude station (near the southern crest of the EIA region), during nighttime, low solar activity, and quiet geomagnetic conditions. This structure, in the initial phase, appears in the ionogram as a faint spread-F trace above or at the F2-layer peak height. After a few minutes, it develops into a strong spread-F trace, and afterwards, it moves to altitudes below the F2-layer peak heights. Finally, the atypical nighttime F-layer trace structure may remain for a while between the F-layer bottom side and peak height or can move to an altitude above the F-layer peak height, and then it disappears. In order to have a comprehensive view of the ionospheric environment characterizing the phenomenon under study, complementary data from six GPS station were used to investigate the ionosphere environment conditions, during both events. The six GPS stations used in this study are distributed from near the equatorial region to low latitudes and provide evidence that the atypical nighttime spread-F structures are not related with large scale equatorial irregularities (plasma bubbles).
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