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Authors: Pino, N. A.* 
Moretti, R.* 
Allard, P.* 
Boschi, E.* 
Title: Seismic precursors of a basaltic paroxysmal explosion track deep gas accumulation and slug upraise
Issue Date: 2011
Series/Report no.: /116(2011)
DOI: 10.1029/2009JB000826
Keywords: Seismic precursors
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.06. Seismology::04.06.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: Basaltic volcanoes, though fed with low-viscosity magma, occasionally produce sudden paroxysmal explosions that are unforecasted and whose triggering mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Here we report on the first detection of seismic signals precursory to such an explosion on 5 April 2003, at Stromboli volcano (Italy). This strongest event in the past 73 years was preceded by ∼25 h of seismic tremor variation, broadly coincident with strong geochemical anomalies in crater plume emissions, followed by ∼15 h of tilt-related long-period inflation pulses of increasing amplitude. These precursory signals are best explained by accelerating growth and leakage of a bubble melt “foam” layer formed at ∼10 km depth, whose collapse triggered the fast ascent of CO2-rich gas slugs and then the explosion. Our results open new perspectives for the forecasting of such paroxysmal explosions and associated hazards.
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