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Authors: Rinaldi, A. P.* 
Todesco, M.* 
Vandemeulebrouck, J.* 
Revil, A.* 
Bonafede, M.* 
Title: Electrical conductivity, ground displacement, gravity changes, and gas flow at Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy): Results from numerical modeling
Issue Date: 2011
Series/Report no.: 3-4/207(2011)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.07.008
Keywords: Electrical conductivity
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.99. General or miscellaneous 
Abstract: Hydrothermal fluid circulation may cause measurable gravity changes and ground deformation. We extend our previous studies and increase the number of observable parameters to include gas temperature, the rate of diffuse degassing, the extent of the degassing area, and electrical conductivity. We have carried out simulations using TOUGH2/EOS2 of a large scale hydrothermal system, then we have calculated observables arising from changes in hydrothermal fluid circulation. Our results show that fluids affect many observable parameters generating detectable signals. However, a more detailed description of the shallow subsurface is necessary to properly calculate electrical conductivity. Studies at Solfatara volcano (Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy) highlight the presence of an unsaturated layer at depth and allow to determine the position of the water table. Then, we present results from a new, small scale simulation, focused on the crater, and carried out with a new, refined meshgrid taking into account the real topography. Aim of the work is to calculate a detailed electrical conductivity map and reproduce the main features of the Solfatara crater.
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