Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2122/7768
Authors: Di Vito, M. A.* 
Arienzo, I.* 
Braia, G.* 
Civetta, L.* 
D’Antonio, M.* 
Di Renzo, V.* 
Orsi, G.* 
Title: The Averno 2 fissure eruption: a recent small-size explosive event at the Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy)
Journal: Bulletin of volcanology 
Series/Report no.: /73(2011)
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Issue Date: 2011
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-010-0417-0
Keywords: Campi Flegrei caldera.
Eruption Dynamics
Magma mixing
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.03. Magmas 
Abstract: The Averno 2 eruption (3,700 ± 50 a B.P.) was an explosive low-magnitude event characterized by magmatic and phreatomagmatic explosions, generating mainly fall and surge beds, respectively. It occurred in the Western sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Campanian Region, South Italy) at the intersection of two active fault systems, oriented NE and NW. The morphologically complex crater area, largely filled by the Averno lake, resulted from vent activation and migration along the NE-trending fault system. The eruption generated a complex sequence of pyroclastic deposits, including pumice fall deposits in the lower portion, and prevailing surge beds in the intermediate-upper portion. The pyroclastic sequence has been studied through stratigraphical, morphostructural and petrological investigations, and sub- divided into three members named A through C. Member A was emplaced during the first phase of the eruption mainly by magmatic explosions which generated columns reaching a maximum height of 10 km. During this phase the eruption reached its climax with a mass discharge rate of 3.2 106 kg/s. Intense fracturing and fault activation favored entry of a significant amount of water into the system, which produced explosions driven by variably efficient water-magma inter- action. These explosions generated wet to dry surge deposits that emplaced Member B and C, respectively. Isopachs and isopleths maps, as well as areal distribution of ballistic fragments and facies variation of surge deposits allow definition of four vents that opened along a NE oriented, 2 km long fissure. The total volume of magma extruded during the eruption has been estimated at about 0.07 km3 (DRE). The erupted products range in composition from initial, weakly peralkaline alkali-trachyte, to last-emplaced alkali-trachyte. Isotopic data and modeling suggest that mixing occurred during the Averno 2 eruption between a more evolved, less radiogenic stored magma, and a less
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