Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authors: Pietrella, M. 
Title: A short-term ionospheric forecasting empirical regional model (IFERM) to predict the critical frequency of the F2 layer during moderate, disturbed, and very disturbed geomagnetic conditions over the European area
Journal: Annales Geophysicae 
Series/Report no.: 2/30 (2012)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Issue Date: 8-Feb-2012
DOI: 10.5194/angeo-30-343-2012
Keywords: Ionosphere (Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; Ionospheric disturbances; Modeling and forecasting)
Subject Classification01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.99. General or miscellaneous 
01. Atmosphere::01.02. Ionosphere::01.02.03. Forecasts 
Abstract: A short-term ionospheric forecasting empirical regional model (IFERM) has been developed to predict the state of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) under different geomagnetic conditions. IFERM is based on 13 short term ionospheric forecasting empirical local models (IFELM) developed to predict foF2 at 13 ionospheric observatories scattered around the European area. The forecasting procedures were developed by taking into account, hourly measurements of foF2, hourly quiettime reference values of foF2 (foF2QT), and the hourly timeweighted accumulation series derived from the geomagnetic planetary index ap, (ap(τ )), for each observatory. Under the assumption that the ionospheric disturbance index ln(foF2/foF2QT) is correlated to the integrated geomagnetic disturbance index ap(τ ), a set of statistically significant regression coefficients were established for each observatory, over 12 months, over 24 h, and under 3 different ranges of geomagnetic activity. This data was then used as input to compute short-term ionospheric forecasting of foF2 at the 13 local stations under consideration. The empirical storm-time ionospheric correction model (STORM) was used to predict foF2 in two different ways: scaling both the hourly median prediction provided by IRI (STORM foF2MED,IRI model), and the foF2QT values (STORM foF2QT model) from each local station. The comparison between the performance of STORM foF2MED,IRI, STORM foF2QT, IFELM, and the foF2QT values, was made on the basis of root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) for a large number of periods characterized by moderate, disturbed, and very disturbed geomagnetic activity. The results showed that the 13 IFELM perform much better than STORM foF2MED,IRI and STORM foF2QT especially in the eastern part of the European area during the summer months (May, June, July, and August) and equinoctial months (March, April, September, and October) under disturbed and very disturbed geomagnetic conditions, respectively. The performance of IFELM is also very good in the western and central part of the Europe during the summer months under disturbed geomagnetic conditions. STORM foF2MED,IRI performs particularly well in central Europe during the equinoctial months under moderate geomagnetic conditions and during the summer months under very disturbed geomagnetic conditions. The forecasting maps generated by IFERM on the basis of the results provided by the 13 IFELM, show very large areas located at middle-high and high latitudes where the foF2 predictions quite faithfully match the foF2 measurements, and consequently IFERM can be used for generating short-term forecasting maps of foF2 (up to 3 h ahead) over the European area.
Appears in Collections:Article published / in press

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat
published.pdf1.81 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Show full item record


checked on Feb 10, 2021

Page view(s) 20

checked on Mar 27, 2023

Download(s) 50

checked on Mar 27, 2023

Google ScholarTM