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Authors: Frondini, F.* 
Cardellini, C.* 
Caliro, S.* 
Chiodini, G.* 
Morgantini, N.* 
Title: Regional groundwater flow and interactions with deep fluids in western Apennine: the case of Narni-Amelia chain (Central Italy)
Issue Date: 2012
Series/Report no.: 2/12(2012)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00356.x
Keywords: carbon dioxide degassing
heat flow
regional aquifer
Subject Classification04. Solid Earth::04.02. Exploration geophysics::04.02.01. Geochemical exploration 
04. Solid Earth::04.04. Geology::04.04.12. Fluid Geochemistry 
04. Solid Earth::04.08. Volcanology::04.08.07. Instruments and techniques 
Abstract: The elemental fluxes and heat flow associated with large aquifer systems can be significant both at local and at regional scales. In fact, large amounts of heat transported by regional groundwater flow can affect the subsurface thermal regime, and the amount of matter discharged towards the surface by large spring systems can be significant relative to the elemental fluxes of surface waters. The Narni-Amelia regional aquifer system (Central Italy) discharges more than 13 m3 sec)1 of groundwater characterised by a slight thermal anomaly, high salinity and high pCO2. During circulation in the regional aquifer, groundwater reacts with the host rocks (dolostones, limestones and evaporites) and mixes with deep CO2-rich fluids of mantle origin. These processes transfer large amounts of dissolved substances, in particular carbon dioxide, and a considerable amount of heat towards the surface. Because practically all the water circulating in the Narni-Amelia system is discharged by few large springs (Stifone-Montoro), the mass and energy balance of these springs can give a good estimation of the mass and heat transported from the entire system towards the surface. By means of a detailed mass and balance of the aquifer and considering the soil CO2 fluxes measured from the main gas emission of the region, we computed a total CO2 discharge of about 7.8 · 109 mol a)1 for the whole Narni-Amelia system. Finally, considering the enthalpy difference between infiltrating water and water discharged by the springs, we computed an advective heat transfer related to groundwater flow of 410 ± 50 MW.
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